FM Armor- and Mechanized-Based Opposing Force: Operational Art. • FM Armor- and Mechanized-Based Opposing Force. FM Armor- and Mechanized-Based Opposing Force: Operational Art. FM Armor- and Mechanized-Based Opposing Force: Tactics. FM The OPFOR operational doctrine outlined in FM represents a realistic . *This publication supersedes FM , 26 January

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This series provides a flexible OPFOR package that users can tailor to represent a wide range of potential threat capabilities and organizations. Each module contains field manuals that describe organizations, operations, and tactics. A third module describes the organizations, operations, and tactics of other OPFORs not covered in the first two modules. A separate field manual provides characteristics of worldwide military equipment available to the capabilities-based OPFOR organizations in the three modules.

This introduction provides definitions of some basic terms used throughout the manual. For definitions of other key terms, the reader should refer to the index, where page numbers in bold type indicate the main entry for a particular topic. The referenced page often includes a definition of the indexed term.

The following paragraphs explain the difference between an OPFOR and a threat and the relationships between the two. In simplest terms, a threat is a potential adversary. It can be any specific foreign nation or organization with intentions and military capabilities that suggest it could become an adversary or challenge the national security interests of the United States or its allies.

As the Army moves into the twenty-first century, it is no longer possible to identify one or two nations or forces as the potential adversaries against which it needs to train on a regular basis. When conflict is imminent, or when U.

Such an OPFOR should portray the specified, real-world threat force with the greatest possible fidelity based on the best available classified and unclassified information.

Cases may exist in which constraints on the use of classified information preclude the use of actual threat data. Sometimes certain threat information may not be available at any level of classification. In such cases, trainers could fill in gaps by using those parts of the capabilities-based OPFOR that are most consistent with what they do know about a specific threat.

List of United States Army Field Manuals – Wikipedia

In more typical cases, however, the U. Army simply needs to train against an OPFOR that represents a particular level of capability rather than a particular country.

It constitutes a baseline for training or developing U. This baseline includes doctrine, tactics, organization, and equipment. It provides a challenging, uncooperative sparring partner representative, but not predictive, of actual threats. First, the armor- and mechanized-based and infantry-based OPFOR modules are not simply unclassified handbooks on the armed forces of a particular nation.

Rather, each module has its basis in the doctrine and organization of various foreign armies. Secondly, the modules do not provide a fixed order of battle.

Rather, they provide the building blocks from which users can derive an infinite number of potential orders of battle, depending on their training requirements. The primary purpose of the field manuals in the series is to provide the basis for a realistic and versatile OPFOR to meet U. They can support training in the field, in classrooms, or in automated simulations. However, users other than trainers also may apply the information in these manuals when they need an unclassified threat force that is not country-specific.

Field Manual depicts the forces of a developed country that devotes extensive resources to maintaining a military capability that rivals that of the United States. The name of that country is the State. It can have a strategic capability, with strategic air and air defense forces and strategic missile forces.

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It probably has a nuclear capability. Unless the State is landlocked, it can have a blue-water navy and naval infantry marines. The formal name of this branch of the armed forces, which corresponds to the U.

Army, is the Ground Forces. These Ground Forces comprise several standing divisions and separate brigades, most of which are subordinate to standing armies or corps. Most of these forces are, in turn, subordinate to army groups.

Army groups, armies, and corps can vary widely in strengths and capabilities. Even multiple army groups may come under a series of theater headquarters that orchestrate complex, large-scale operations. The armor- and mechanized-based OPFOR can conduct a strategic operation involving the combined forces in a theater. These forces may comprise Armor- and mechanized-based forces are the norm throughout the industrialized world. Such armies normally mount at least 40 percent of their ground forces in armored vehicles.

They tend to modernize selected systems to match the best systems deployed by their neighbors. In terms of equipment and size, they range from small forces fielding outmoded equipment to large, capable forces fielding state-of-the-art weapons. Many of these nations produce and export weapons and technology up through state-of-the-art systems. If not, they have the financial resources to purchase such systems. Significant technologies that mark this class are in fire support and target acquisition.

The armor- and mechanized-based OPFOR module includes a range of potential forces that can vary in size and capability. Small-to-medium armor- and mechanized-based forces cover a wide range of technology and capability, from developing states through small, professional armies.

Large armor- and mechanized-based forces often have more sophisticated weaponry. Both types can field self-propelled artillery and multiple rocket launchers; artillery-delivered precision munitions; medium-to-heavy tanks; and limited thermal capability.

These forces may or may not have nuclear weapons but at least have the capability to produce or acquire them. The more advanced states have the logistics and command structures necessary to conduct continuous operations, and joint operations are the norm.

Large armor- and mechanized-based forces can conduct large-scale, combined arms operations. Some such forces are capable of sustained power-projection operations. The high-technology end of the armor- and mechanized-based OPFOR approaches the level termed complex, adaptive forces. From developed nations, these most technically and tactically advanced forces can choose quality over quantity. As they modernize, they can reduce in size and still maintain a high level of military capability.

These forces normally have a complex structure, with more specialized units operating highly sophisticated equipment.

List of United States Army Field Manuals

They are also capable of adapting to dynamic situations and seizing opportunities on the battlefield. However, such a force is exceedingly expensive to equip, train, and maintain. Thus, the differences between the infantry-based and armor- and mechanized-based OPFOR modules fmm largely scenario-dependent.

A particular training scenario may not require a large array of standing forces or justify the extensive use of mechanized infantry or tank forces. If not, the infantry-based forces of FM may better fit training needs.

Sometimes trainers may find it necessary to draw some elements from both organization guides in order to constitute the appropriate OPFOR order of battle. Infantry-based forces are common throughout the developing world.

None of these forces is capable of meeting the most advanced armies on an even footing in conventional battle. An infantry-based force differs from an armor- and mechanized-based force primarily in terms of technological level and the ability to integrate arms into combined arms combat. The infantry-based OPFOR generally represents the armed forces of gm developing country with limited resources.

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The name of that country would also be the State. In this case, the State’s military structure still consists primarily of the Ground Forces. However, these Ground Forces are primarily infantry dismounted or motorizedwith relatively few mechanized infantry and 10061 units and perhaps some airborne infantry units.

Compared to the armor- and mechanized-based OPFOR, these forces typically have fewer standing divisions and brigades. However, infantry-based forces, too, can vary in size and capability. The focus of FM is on small-to-medium infantry-based forces in which divisions and separate brigades are subordinate to military regions and districts. They have some armor but rely on dismounted or motorized infantry for the bulk of their combat power.

They normally conduct set-piece operations, integrating arms at the tactical level. A small infantry-based force typically has marginal integration capability ability to conduct tactical-level combat actions with limited fire support or basic integration capability ability to conduct battalion-level tactical combined arms actions. Even with a small infantry-based force, however, the State might mobilize and deploy one army- or corps-size force capable of conducting large-scale operations against a neighboring country whose armed forces are also infantry-based.

A medium-size infantry-based force may have one or more standing armies or corps and the capability to integrate forces 1000-61 the lower end of the operational level.

In terms of technology, both groups import most of their systems. Medium and large infantry-based forces may also possess significant armor- and mechanized-based formations. They typically use these heavier units as exploitation forces or mobile reserves. Large infantry-based forces can have multiple armies or corps and conduct extensive set-piece operations over broad frontages. However, they are normally capable of projecting military power only within their region.

The key technologies that can allow this are self-propelled artillery and offensive chemical and biological warfare. The State may or may not have chemical and biological weapons, but has the capability to produce or acquire them. A country with large infantry forces can have extensive, basic weapons industries, or it may still import most systems. When opposed by an adversary of similar capabilities, an infantry-based OPFOR can conduct conventional, force-oriented combat.

However, when faced with a large, technologically advanced army, it may choose to redefine the terms of conflict and pursue its ffm through terrorism, insurgency, or partisan warfare. In the case of intervention by an external power or coalition, this strategy aims to undermine the enemy’s will to continue the conflict without the necessity rm defeating his main forces on the battlefield.

Aside from the Ground Forces, the State’s armed forces may include any or all of the following components:. This OPFOR can also include less-capable forces, such as internal security forces, the militia, and reserves. This menu of possible forces allows U. Field Manual depicts infantry-based forces of a country that is divided geographically into an unspecified number of military regions, each with a number of subordinate military districts.

This OPFOR stations most combat forces within military districts that can vary widely in their strengths and capabilities. The organization guide allows for standing divisions, but districts with separate brigades would be much more common and in keeping with the spirit of the infantry-based OPFOR concept.

If the trainer requires a large infantry-based force, the combined use of FMs and may better suit his purpose.